Topographic survey - a set of works on creation of topographic maps or plans of the area through the measurement of distances, heights, angles, etc. using various tools (ground surveys), as well as imaging the earth's surface from aircraft (aerial photography, satellite imagery).
Ground surveys are planned, high and combined. When planned (theodolite) is obtained by a topographical map, but without relief, that is, When situation (a set of terrain objects). Topographic (tacheometric) survey, particularly large scale, is the most popular type of surveying. Need for it may arise in surveys, updating topographic maps, preparation of general plans, preparation of working drawings to address the vertical layout and design of landscape design. Based on the topographic survey, perhaps, to build a digital terrain model. At high altitude (leveling), you define a high-altitude photography (vertical) position of the characteristic points of relief and structural elements of buildings.
Topographical works greatly facilitated after the appearance of special geodetic GPS and GLONASS receivers, combined with a computer and synchronized with each other via radio.
Geodesy - the branch of production associated with the measurements on the ground. Is an integral part of construction works. With the help of surveying projects of buildings and structures are transferred from paper into nature with absolute precision, calculated amounts of materials are monitored for compliance with the geometrical parameters of structures. It also finds application in the mining industry to calculate the volume and blasting the rock.
Among the many problems of geodesy can be identified "long-term objectives" and "task in the coming years." For long-term objectives include:
Surveying (surveying, arpantazh) - geodesic method for determining the boundaries of land in the horizontal plane.
Land surveying is a complex engineering and surveying work for the establishment, restoration and consolidation of land uses in the district boundaries, determining the location of the boundaries and area of ??the site, as well as the legal registration of the submissions received.
Prior to the adoption of the Federal Law N 268-FZ, when carrying out any transactions with the land such as:
The boundaries of land secured temporary boundary marks in the form of wooden stakes, metal pins, dowels.
Long-term boundary marks in the form of a metal pipe or wooden pole laid at a depth of not less than 0.8 m or metal grade, fixed with cement mortar, and the relevant requirements of the Order of the Ministry of Economic Development № 582 of 31 December 2009 on the borders of land shall be in accordance with the requirements to methods for fixing the characteristic points of the boundaries of land and may be contained in the contract for the performance of cadastral work to be concluded between the customer and inventory engineer.
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